We live in a time when any answers to any questions are freely available. It is not a vice to dispute the opinions of scholars and put forward your ideas. But the scientists themselves are already tired of the constant disputes with not always competent opponents. This article gathers 5 of the most challenging scientific issues of modern times. Make sure to check them as well as to look through the main rules of effective arguing.
Top 5 Statements Scientists Are Ready to Confirm
⦁ Vaccines are Harmful
The anti-vaccination movement is primarily an American problem. Proponents of the theory come up with a million reasons not to trust vaccination: from the fact that vaccines worsen the natural immunity of children to the point that they cause autism. There are even people who believe that with the help of vaccines, the state can control and monitor people, or that vaccination is an action for the gradual destruction of humanity. However, the benefits of vaccination have plenty of evidence: thanks to vaccinations, humanity defeated smallpox and polio. Previously, these diseases meant a death sentence without appeal.
⦁ Charles Darwin Was Wrong
The theory of natural selection, put forward by Charles Darwin in 1858, was perhaps the most important event in science in the 19th century. Darwin linked all living organisms, from the simplest to the most complex into one complex system, assuming their genetic commonality and a single simplest ancestor. Skeptics who do not want to accept Darwin’s theory of evolution usually appeal to the human eye. Even the creator of the theory noted: it is difficult to believe that such a complex living device was created in the course of natural selection by trial and error. However, scientists from the European Laboratory of Molecular Biology managed to build a coherent system of the evolution of the human eye, confirming it with rigorous scientific research.
⦁ GMO’s Are Dangerous
Genetically modified products are a popular topic. Media warns about their dangers, manufacturers proudly glue the label “does not contain GMOs”. Genetically modified products are those that have been modified at the DNA level and new qualities have been added. For example, it is insect-resistant corn. the topic of their safety arose only recently when genetic engineering has developed enough and the presence of GMOs in food has become ubiquitous. But this is simply a more technological kind of breeding in which humanity has been engaged from time immemorial. Scientists around the world agree that genetically modified food is absolutely safe.
⦁ Homeopathy Treats
Homeopathy is a type of alternative medicine invented at the end of the 18th century by German physician Christian Hahnemann. Homeopathy is based on the principle of “fight fire with fire” – a substance that causes symptoms of the disease in healthy people can cure the same symptoms in people who are sick. Homeopathy was particularly popular in the XIX century, then revived in the XX century – and is still in demand. In the global medical community, to be honest, there is only one opinion about homeopathy: it is a fraud. Clinical studies of drugs show that there is no difference between homeopathy and placebo.
⦁ HIV and AIDS Are Related
HIV affects the human immune system, eventually depriving it of its ability to resist not only HIV reproduction, but also other diseases and infections (for example, tuberculosis, fungi, even SARS). AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection. At the AIDS stage, the immunity is weakened so much that other diseases that develop on the background of HIV infection take an irreversible course and are fatal. At the same time, there are a huge number of people who deny it: some do not believe in the existence of HIV in principle, some do not believe that HIV causes AIDS.
Top 6 Rules to Follow When You Need to Argue Your Opinion
These were quite interesting and controversial topics, but now let’s look at the basic rules of an effective dispute.
⦁ A dispute makes sense only if there are incompatible ideas about the same object, phenomenon, etc. If there is no such incompatibility, soon it usually becomes clear that the disputants speak about different, but complementary aspects of the same object. There is nothing further to argue about.
⦁ Any dispute should have its own theme, its subject. This is an obvious requirement to the dispute, but even it is sometimes violated. This is necessary so that the subject of the dispute is clear. It is best to fix this object at the very beginning with a special statement in order to avoid a rather ordinary question later: what was the argument about?
⦁ Any dispute is based on certain and uniform prerequisites. The dispute presupposes a certain commonality of the initial positions of the parties, a certain uniform basis for them.
⦁ The topic of the dispute should not be changed or replaced by another throughout the dispute. This condition is rarely observed, which, in general, is understandable. At the beginning of the dispute, the topic is not always sufficiently defined. This is revealed, however, only in the process of a dispute. Its participants are forced to constantly clarify their positions, which leads to a change in approaches to the topic of the dispute, to a shift in the emphasis of this very topic.
⦁ Successfully challenging a particular position requires a certain knowledge of logic. First of all, it is supposed to be able to derive consequences from one’s own and those of others, to notice contradictions, to reveal the absence of logical connections between statements. Usually, intuitive logic, the spontaneously developed skills of correct reasoning are enough for all these purposes.
⦁ It is impossible to win the dispute without carefully prepared arguments. A young scientist who disputes his opinion must carefully prepare for the dispute and write down all his points of view and their rationale. Moreover, it is also necessary to pay attention to style, grammar, and punctuation. For example, it will be reasonable to use a proofreading and editing service like Analyze.AcademicHelp.net that hires writing analysts. With their help, you will be able to develop the strongest arguments and present them according to the all scientific style rules.